7 Brain Tumor Symptoms Symptom, Staging, Treatment

1. Brain tumors

A brain tumor, it is a disease in which abnormal cells grow in the brain tissue. In brain tumors, there are two types of primary brain tumors arising from brain tissue itself, metastatic brain tumor cancer of other organs have been transferred to the brain. The primary brain tumors, there are two types of benign and malignant. Even benign tumors, and failing to pressure the normal brain increases, the brain tumor that occurs in a limited space of the intracranial are subject to even if treatment. Incidence (including the central nervous) brain tumors, is about 3.5 people per 10 million people per year. Those of many malignant brain tumor as a whole, and it is finely divided by the nature and shape of the cell. The prognosis and possible treatment, the cure, it is approximately determined by the general condition and the type of this brain tumor. I shows the percentage and type of primary brain tumor below.

Type of brain tumor Percentage
1. Glioma 28% (Malignant)
(Astrocytoma Static) 1-1 astrocytoma (28%) Relatively benign
1-2 malignant astrocytoma (18%) Malignancy
(This elegance) 1-3 glioblastoma (32%) Malignancy
1-4 medulloblastoma (Zuigashu) (4%) Malignancy
1-5 Other (18%)
2. Meningioma 26% (Benign) (less malignant)
3. Pituitary adenoma 17% (Benign)
4. Schwannoma (neurosis Zhu) 11% (Benign)
5. Congenital tumor (such as craniopharyngioma) 5% (Relatively benign)
6. Other 13%

The most common in primary brain tumors, arise from glial (new trend) cell glioma in what is called, I will account for about 28% of the total. And glial cells, and between the nerve cells and nerve cells, is located in between the nerve cells and blood vessels, it has to provide a source of nerve cell nutrients and oxygen. Of the gliomas, one of the most common are astrocytomas. It is a thing that many in the cerebral hemispheres in adults, likely to occur in the cerebellum in children. Some of the astrocytoma in children, (“For more information It is something to be cured with surgery brain tumor (children) see the section “of). The astrocytoma adult generation, there is a malignant astrocytoma and malignant astrocytoma relatively benign. Astrocytoma tumor is relatively benign, but it is a tumor that require attention because it can undergo malignant transformation. Accounts for about 1/3 of the entire glioma, grade is the highest among the glioma, glioblastoma, tumor treatment is very difficult to emit good men of 45-65 years old. It is a meningioma often next to that glioma occurs at the meninges that surrounds the brain. Other, occur in the pituitary gland is a central hormone of pituitary adenoma , occurring in acoustic nerve schwannoma there is such. It is unlikely that primary brain tumors, spread to other organs such as liver and lung lesions from intracranial, but not least is that the cancer that occurred in other organs spread to the brain. I called a metastatic brain tumor this. Lung cancer, metastasis to the brain seen many, in particular, is such as breast cancer. In addition, the interior of the brain called the brain parenchyma, metastasis of lung cancer has the property of easily fixed to the membrane, such as the dura mater in the case of metastasis of breast cancer. I also raised As one of the features of metastatic brain tumor, metastasis is found a plurality of locations. In addition, it is possible that in the liquid surrounding the brain called cerebrospinal fluid, cancer cells to proliferate. Treatment will be extremely difficult in this case.

2. Symptom

Let’s see a doctor if the degree of headache may become stronger gradually, the frequency of vomiting or have increased, and the contents of the speech talking about how to walk and has become strange. Symptom may be such occur also responsible for brain tumors other than, you need to be careful. Symptoms of brain tumor cause, thick Updated symptom-free (intracranial intracranial hypertension symptoms that occur with local symptoms or destroy pressure on the nerve tumor itself, by the tumor increases in intracranial space is limited There is).

1) local symptoms

The brain is the center of the nerve, but a variety of functions, such as sensation and movement is being conducted in a distributed in the brain. For example, (when the tumor was on the right side, paralysis can happen to the left side of the body) and so on paralysis of the right side of the body that takes place tumor is possible at a site to move the hands and feet of the motor cortex of the frontal lobe of the left. In the case of a right-handed person could be tumor on the left side of the frontal lobe in front of the brain, urinary incontinence and personality change lethargy, such as dementia like behavior, paralysis of the right side of the body, such as language disorder will appear. When the tumor was able to occipital lobe, (constriction and then), will be visual field defect Nadogami tunnel vision. Language disorder will occur to be able to tumors (right frontal lobe in a lot of people left-handed) left frontal lobe of the right-handed person. In the center of the brain the pineal gland and pituitary (Tai fire fighting), or abnormally (object can be seen in the double), such as double vision in the failure of the oculomotor nerve that moves the eye to be able to tumors in the hypothalamus near, There is the thing that endocrine disorders such as growth failure and amenorrhea occurs due to the abnormal secretion of the hormone. If the tumor could be at a site called the brain stem and cerebellum, hands and feet wander, or become ataxia adjustment does not work, hearing loss, facial paralysis, dizziness comes happened.

2) increased intracranial pressure symptoms
Tumor increases in intracranial a limited, intracranial pressure rises in pressure on the normal brain. (The optic nerve head is swollen in the fundus examination) persistent headache, nausea, papilledema I will allow you to Nadogami by this. Chronic headache is what you should be aware of the most in that. Headache can also occur in diseases other than brain tumor, there is a tendency to persist chronically in the case of a brain tumor, strongly upon waking in the morning, the symptoms will gradually weakened thereafter. You can hear about 20% of brain tumors early, you should be able to see 70% or more progresses. Nausea, convulsions, fainting and will also be seen along with the exacerbation of headache. When these symptoms were seen, you must seek medical attention immediately.

3. Diagnostic imaging

In the case of brain tumors, there is no screening system, as is done in other cancers, except for brain dock. If there is a subjective symptoms suggestive of brain tumors such as those described up to now, that you seek early, please explain in detail the progress of the symptoms, you get to determine whether there is abnormal neurological is important. Also, if you are undergoing treatment for cancer and other cancer that is easy to spread to the brain, when the symptoms mentioned before appears, you must undergo a thorough examination CT, such as MRI.
1) CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance image)
It is the imaging method that forms the center of the image diagnosis of current. Position and size, characteristics of the image of the tumor is known, is an important test. Tumor size of about 5mm up so users will know now. It is important to look at the temporal changes in the shape or change in size, position and relationship with the surrounding brain.
2) cerebral angiography
By the imaging blood vessels of the brain, is an important test that can obtain detailed information, such as the properties of the blood vessels in the tumor itself and nutrition blood vessels into the tumor, is used for surgery examination and diagnosis.
3) Other
Ultrasound examination is performed during surgery now, it will play an important role in understanding the exact location of the tumor during surgery. In addition, a variety of testing equipment have been developed.

4. Staging

If the adult brain is found in the image diagnosis, it is necessary to determine whether the benign brain tumors or the malignant in any kind to determine the method of treatment then, whether malignant extent in the case of malignant . To do this, examine under a microscope the organization to take as much as possible the tumor by performing a craniotomy, pathological diagnosis to malignancy is done in the case of a malignant type of brain tumor. Also, depending on the diagnostic imaging findings, there is a way to do the pathological diagnosis in the same way by removing a part of the tumor with surgery. Many of the criteria What you choose, it depends on the general condition and diagnostic imaging.

5. Type of treatment

For the treatment of brain tumors, there is a chemotherapy surgery, radiation therapy, with anti-cancer agents.
1) Surgery
It is the most effective treatment to be removed all the affected area by surgery. Benign tumor many will heal in this. However, there may be a brain tumor can not be resected in all benign. If a brain tumor could be in place with the nerve to move the hands and feet, hands and feet is no longer move A damaged brain of normal, you may not be able to removed all tumors. Difficult decision to where to and you can removed without impairing the function to surgery is required, there is a remarkable progress of medical equipment and surgical technique less invasive of (Shinshu) than using a computer state-of-the-art technology of recent, outcome has also been improved.
2) radiation therapy
For a portion of the tumor benign or relatively all, malignant brain tumors, radiation therapy is one of the most important treatment. Or in conjunction with chemotherapy or surgery, do the treatment alone. In this case, make sure that you do not irradiated with normal cranial nerve is irradiated onto the only lesion as much as possible. Even benign tumors, small schwannoma, the meningioma, may also be used method of gamma knife treatment now, but this is also the application of radiation therapy. The gamma knife is effective against malignant brain tumors. Source is different, but (“For more information you can also of focused irradiation of SMART stereotactic irradiation refer to the section of “).
(See: 3) chemotherapy drug therapy of cancer )
Chemotherapy with anti-cancer agents, have been made to be used in combination with radiation therapy or surgery as a treatment for malignant brain tumors. There are oral administration, intravenous injection, or topical administration. Method of administration and combination of a variety of drugs, have been developed by clinical research. There is a make a difference with systemic chemotherapy for other cancers, blood-brain barrier exists in the brain, anti-cancer agent is less effective.
Therapy 4) other
Gene therapy, clinical research has been done in the United States now, but its application to malignant brain tumors has been noted among them, but it is one. In addition, treatment using the immunity humans have originally ( immunotherapy clinical trial is carried out also), study on the effectiveness have been made.

6. Treatment and type of tumor

( glioma , pituitary adenoma , schwannoma see the following sections for more information on.)
1) adult astrocytoma
Is done mainly (lumpectomy) surgery.
If the findings of malignancy is suspected in a somewhat pathological diagnosis, you may be surgery after radiation therapy is performed.
The effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation therapy after surgery, consideration by the clinical trial have been made.
Adult glioblastoma and 2) adult malignant astrocytoma
Usually were removed as much as possible the tumor by surgery, therapy hit a tumor that remained by radiation therapy and then is done.
In high-grade, chemotherapy is done in addition to the surgery after radiation therapy.
There are many methods currently in radiation therapy, the method in addition to the irradiation method, called external beam normal, irradiated by a needle into the tumor interior, a method of irradiating the cavity is removed, a method of irradiating during surgery, There are irradiation method using a radiation sensitizer. Clinical trial is carried out for these, consider whether or not effective as compared to existing therapies have been made.
Treatments such as immunotherapy and chemotherapy after radiation therapy, study of effectiveness have been made in clinical trials.
3) adult ependymoma
Removed by surgical therapy is therapy center.
If the findings of malignancy is suspected in a somewhat pathological diagnosis, you may be surgery after radiation therapy is performed.
4) adult malignant ependymoma
Radiation therapy is enforced in postoperative removed by surgery.
After excision, radiation therapy chemotherapy combination, study of effectiveness has been carried out by the clinical trial.
Projection cell tumors depletion 5) adult malignant
Radiation therapy is enforced in postoperative removed by surgery.
For the types of chemotherapy work better and high-grade, chemotherapy and radiation therapy is done in surgery after excision.
Treatments such as immunotherapy and maintenance chemotherapy after radiation therapy, study of effectiveness have been made in clinical trials.
6) adult medulloblastoma
(” brain tumor (children) see “a)
After surgery, radiation therapy is done.
It is in clinical trials for efficacy of treatment you underwent radiation therapy after surgery and chemotherapy further.
7) adult meningioma
If you make a full recovery in the surgery are often, but sometimes radiation therapy is performed in the case of post-surgical tumor remained.
8) adult malignant meningioma
After surgery, and radiotherapy.
For immunotherapy and chemotherapy after radiation therapy, study of effectiveness have been made in clinical trials.

7. Survival rate

The survival rate, usually calculated by the treatment content and progress of cancer, but is also affected by the presence or absence of (non-cancer diseases such as diabetes) complications and the patient’s age. for (frequency) is different from the distribution of the other elements of these data by using, there is a possibility that the value of the survival rate is different.
Survival rate to show you here is what was on the website of the National Cancer Center so far. Rather than the value itself of survival, to a certain width (depending on the data, but 10%, etc. such as 5% ±) by remembering, please consider us as a rough guide.
5-year survival rate of the entire brain tumor is now over 75%. 93% in meningiomas are benign brain tumors, pituitary adenomas 96%, schwannoma is 97%. On the other hand, 38% in the entire glioma, glioblastoma aggressive most 6%, malignant astrocytoma high-grade 23%, astrocytoma is about 66% in the next. Metastatic brain tumor is only 13%. Treatment of malignant brain tumors has become an issue in the future as this.

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